Сутність соціолінгвістичних проблем перекладу та шляхи їх вирішення
Translation as a complex dual process incorporating linguistic and cultural transfer of the source text meaning and intention in the target text has come to be frequently recognized by researchers as inevitably bound up with a socially regulated practice and tradition. The article deals with those sociolinguistic concerns which came into the limelight with the development of a new disciplinary approach to translation studies – translation sociology. This interdisciplinary science focuses on delivering the impact of certain social factors (social status, social roles, gender, age, the place of origin, ethnicity) on language variation in different communicative situations.
There have been outlined the following major sociolinguistic concerns related to translation practice: the representation of social stratification of the source culture in the target text; the preservation of a source language set of socio-semiotic parameters of field, tenor and mode in the target language; adherence to certain social norms of translation as to society-generated stereotypical approaches to the allowed degree of adaptation of source texts. The demonstration of social realia of the source language is hindered by the discrepancy in the segmentation / hierarchy of the social order immanent in both cultures, the fact inducing dynamic (or communicative) translation as the most efficient tactic of a translator and drawing in functional analogues – as a translation technique. Sociolinguistic facet of translation as a communicative process embedded in a social situation presupposes interpreting a communicative act as an interplay of socio-semiotic parameters so as to keep up the tonality of the source text, the latter ensuing from the actants’ roles balance and their being geared towards the addressee’s expectations. The solution to the problem of social norms of translation is deemed arbitrary regarding an aesthetic translation tradition of a culture.